The new American dream is to retire early, perhaps in your 50s or even your 40s. But how do you make this dream a reality? These steps could help:
1. Map out a plan. Retiring early requires starting early with very deliberate planning. Design a road map of how you will get there, including an analysis of your investments and how much income you anticipate getting from other sources, such as Social Security (which won't kick in until your 60s at the earliest), and spell out the details in writing. To accumulate enough to retire early, you'll likely need to take a fairly aggressive approach to investing while working full time. You'll also need continued growth during a phase-down period and a plan for how you'll manage assets when you're completely retired.
3. Control your debt. One of the biggest impediments to early retirement is spending too much while you're working, especially if you build up substantial debt. The more you borrow, the harder it will be save enough to call it quits. Not only do debt payments siphon away money that you could use more productively, you're also paying extra in interest charges. You're bound to have a mortgage and perhaps a car payment, but if you eliminate luxury purchases now you'll be more likely to have the money later to support yourself without working.
4. Educate yourself. Knowledge is power, and learning about investing and other financial matters can help you make good choices on the way to early retirement. Understanding the more complex assets you may hold—bonds, exchange-traded funds, annuities, etc.—should enable you to avoid mistakes that could disrupt your progress. Take the time to learn everything you need to know.
5. Make the process automatic. Human nature being what it is, it may be difficult for you to remain diligent about saving more and spending less. But you could do yourself a favor by automating some things that can help steer you toward early retirement. Increasing your 401(k) plan contributions—perhaps by directing part of a salary increase into your account—can make a big difference. You also might take a systematic approach to prepaying mortgages or car loans.
6. Don't ignore taxes. It's not how only much you earn that makes a difference; it also matters how much you keep after taxes, and it's smart to make taxes a prime consideration in most of your investment and financial dealings. Tax-deferred growth inside a 401(k) and IRAs or investing in tax-free municipal bonds in taxable accounts could have a big impact, especially if you're in a high tax bracket. Savvy tax bracket management over time can save you tens or even hundreds of thousands of dollars.
7. Go "all in." Retiring early almost certainly will require an all-out effort over many years. It may help to work toward this goal as if you were running a business by keeping a steady eye on building toward the future. Try not to be unrealistic about the returns you expect to get from your investments and retirement plans, and follow through on the saving and spending objectives you've outlined in your early-retirement plan.
8. Assume full responsibility. Assuming you don't hit the jackpot in a lottery or receive a big, unexpected inheritance, you can succeed financially only if you take charge of all aspects of your life. That means correcting mistakes, making necessary adjustments, and striving for sound financial decisions. Part of taking responsibility can involve getting guidance from a knowledgeable professional advisor.
9. Manage your risk. Avoiding substantial investment losses can be just as important as generating big gains. That's why it makes sense to emphasize risk reduction as you formulate your investment strategy. Keep in mind that financial markets go up and down. And while that doesn't mean you should sink all of your money into U.S. Treasury bills and other traditionally safe investments, you probably will need to include such holdings in your overall portfolio mix to minimize the inherent volatility that can work against your goal of retiring early.
10. Use common sense. Finally, be as logical and rational as you can be in pursuing your goal. In particular, try to avoid panicking during inevitable market downturns. If you save diligently and stay the course with a well-diversified portfolio, early retirement might not be a pipe dream. It could happen to you!